Key Major Factors Causing Dental Caries : A Review
Hira Hashim, Uzma Rafi, Roheela Yasmeen, Rasheda Jabeen, Aisha Waheed Qurashi and Syeda Shazia Bukhari
ABSTRACT: Oral cavity is the main part of the digestive system which is used for the uptake of nutrients/food while microbes can also enter through the oral cavity along the uptake of food. It is seen that the composition of host saliva is very important to build the environment of the oral cavity. When the pH of
saliva became low then the chances of microbial attacks and their adherence to the surface of teeth to form lesion increases. A complete microbial ecosystem is present in oral cavity and biofilms are produced by the microbes of normal flora to protect host from pathogenic microbes. Most of the microbes that enter oral
cavity have ability to cause disease, they incorporates themselves into the normal flora and alter the biofilm community and induce autoimmunity and inflammation into the host. The personnel and materials also play crucial role in activation and inhibition of caries and lesions. Phages are gaining interest in the field of microbiology as they are less toxic and host specific for their action. Dental caries are the indication of chronic infections inside the body. By examine the oral cavity of an individual we can analyze the health status of that individual. Diseases can be controlled through better living conditions and oral hygiene, as much of the developed countries has lower risk of getting caries where as in under-developed and developing countries have greater chance to get the risk.