Antibiotic Resistance Profiling of Pseudomonas Species Isolated from Cloacal Swab of Domestic Pigeons
Muhammad Ahmed Azeem1, Sikander Hayat1, Jawaria Muzahir2, Amber Hassan3, Tallat Anwar Faridi4
Antibiotics are used to treat a number of bacterial infections. However, overuse or misuse of antibiotics has raised serious concerns against antibiotic resistance amongst bacteria. Hence, antibiotics are becoming inefficient in treating bacterial infections leading to an increase in mortality rate worldwide. The domestic animals especially birds are a major source of transmission of antibiotic resistant bacteria in human through excrement and cause bacterial diseases in human. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of different antibiotics prior to their prescription as a measure to prevent antibiotic resistance in bacteria. For this 120 cloacal swab samples were collected from the domestic pigeons of District Narowal to isolate Pseudomonas sp. and assess the efficacy of different antibiotics prior to their prescription as a measure to prevent antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Antibacterial activities were evaluated by performing antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Pseudomonas isolates against 18 commercially available antibiotic discs [Trimethoprime (TMP), Clarithromycin (CLR), Gentamicin (GEN), Chloramphenicol (C), Ampicillin (AM), Streptomycin (S), Kanamycin (K), Nitrofurantoin (F), Amoxicillin (AX), Tazobactam (TPZ), Imipenem (IPM), Meropenem (MEM), Levofloxacin (LEV), Nalidixic acid (NA), Ceftriaxone (CRO), Amikacin (AK), Tetracycline (TE) and Ciprofloxacin (CIP)] by using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Amongst these antibiotics, notably Pseudomonas sp. showed highest sensitivity to Clarithromycin (93.94%), Ampicillin (100%), Amikacin (93%) and Nalidixic (100%). This study established a general antibiotic resistance pattern of commercially used different antibiotics for commonly encountered clinical isolates. Moreover, antibiotics susceptibility tests (AST) should be carried out prior to prescribing antibiotics to the patient. Additionally, the antibacterial activities of local clinical isolates and change in bacteriological profile due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics associated with appearance of multiple drug resistant strains should be evaluated. It was concluded that preventive measure and their implementation is quite necessary to control antibiotic resistance and domestic pigeons can be a carrier of Pseudomonas species and can transmit through their fecal material to humans and other animals.