Cervical Abnormalities are related to Infertility: A Review
Nosheen Arshad*, Muhammad Ahmad Naeem, Muhammad Bilal, Sayeda Kiran Aftab, Fatima Mahrukh
Infertility is a disease and cervical abnormalities of the genital tract in females may cause this condition. To evaluate the cervical abnormalities related to infertility in females a systematic review was done. Related literature were collected via Google Scholar, NCBI, PubMed, and Medscape. For article searching following keywords were used: cervical abnormalities, infertility, uterine anomalies, and cervical factors. As the literature reviewed, more than 60 articles were studied, from which only 45 articles were added. The study suggested that many cervical abnormalities affect fertility including the poor interaction of mucus and sperm in the cervix, cervical cancer, dilatation and stenosis of the cervix, wall irregularities, diverticulum, masses, and metaplasia of the cervix. Some of the microorganisms also affect cervical functions causing infertility. It is concluded that cervical abnormalities can be related to infertility.