Brief analysis of Therapeutic Approaches of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus along with Diagnosis and Screening Methods
Rida Tanveer, Iqra Fasih, Syed Ahmad, Samreen Riaz
Diabetes is an endocrine system disease which is characterized by abnormal elevated glucose levels. Type I Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder with early onset, whereas Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is non-autoimmune form with late onset. Small and large artery complications are the two main categories of diabetes mellitus long term complications. Overproduction of superoxide by the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), leading to oxidative stress, occurs because of pathogenic effects of hyperglycemia. New vessels are fragile and hyper permeable in case of retinopathy in T1DM. T1DM is known to be occurred by beta cell destruction which leads to hyperglycemia and insulin scantiness. In phase 3 T1DM is normally diagnosed, the stage at which the disorder has led to life threatening condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis. To minimize the possibility of serious complication it is necessary to diagnose autoimmunity which is present during first years of life through early screening or by using diagnostic tools. Measuring fasting blood glucose or standard OGTT’s are performed for screening of phase 2 T1DM in the persons which have 1 or more autoantibodies targeting β-cell. The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus is necessary to encourage healthy lifestyle and to control glycaemia conditions in order to avoid severe complication. Pharmacological approaches are the most widely used method for the treatment of T1DM including injectable insulin and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, Gene therapy and stem cellbased therapies. These are supposed to help in providing life-time freedom from T1DM but there is still a room for debate in this regard.