Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Fruit Juices on biofilm-producing Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus

  • Hafiza Iqra Abdul Rasheed Institute of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Asad Ali Institute of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Hassan Saeed Institute of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Noor Aqsa Institute of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Sikander Sultan Institute of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Saba Riaz Institute of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab
Keywords: Staphylococcus, MRSA,, antibiotic resistance, medicinal plants, enterotoxins


The drug-resistance behavior of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has made it difficult to treat. This study aimed to discover some fruit juice's anti-MRSA potential and the presence of enterotoxin genesin MRSA. MRSA strains were confirmed phenotypically by the disc diffusion method. The well-diffusion method and Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used to determine the antibacterial effects of fruit juices. Congo red test and ring tests were performed to analyze the biofilm-forming ability. PCR detected staphylococcal enterotoxin genes Sea and Seg. A total of 90 strains, of which 26 non-clinical and 64 clinical samples were processed. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) was highly resistant to MRSA in both groups. In clinical isolates, Citrus reticulate has shown the maximum antibacterial activity against 67.1 % MRSA, whereas, Punicagranatum was most effective for 46.1% strains isolated from non-clinical sources. Punicagranatum and Citrus reticulate were inhibiting the growth of MRSA at the concentration of >64 µl/ml in both groups. Both Congo red and ring tests determined the biofilm-forming ability in 57.60 % and 65.30 % of non-clinical strains, respectively. Enterotoxin-producing gene Sea was detected in 8 % of MRSA in the non-clinical group and only 2 % in the clinical group. Seg and the co-existence of both genes were found in the same ratio in both groups. This study showed that fruit juices, especially pomelo, orange, and pomegranate, have high antibacterial activity. Enterotoxin genes play a role in the spread of infections caused by MRSA.


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