Assessment of Cyclical Spreading and Ecological Extortions to the Avian Species in District Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan

  • Iffat Abid Department of Zoology, Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Ayesha Zulfiqar Department of Zoology, University of Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Tariq Ahmad College of Wildlife and Protected Area, Northeast Forestry University No.26, Hexing Road, Harbin 150040, China
  • Alina Sikandar Department of Zoology, University of Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan.
  • Sidra Hussain College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China
  • Nusrat liaqat Department of Zoology, Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Tahir Raza Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Keywords: Avian diversity, Cycling spreading, Ecological extortion, Head Trimmu


The study was conducted to estimate the bird diversity and the risks they confront at Head Trimmu, District Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan. A number of field surveys were managed over 12-months by employing both direct and indirect means during certain hours of a day. The study found a total of 54 species from 15 orders and 31 families. The bird species were classified as residents (64.4%), breeders (8%), migrants (26%), and passage migrants (1.4%). The most frequent species observed during the study were house sparrow, house crow, domestic rock pigeon, ring-necked dove and common myna. Overall, the study revealed a diversified avian community with Shannon-Wiener diversity index of 3.3367. Only two species found near threatened like the Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata)and Alexandrine parakeet (Psittacula eupatria) but the majority of the species are of least concern. The ecological richness of the area is under threat by urban development due to growing human population. So, the major threats to avian species in the study area are habitat degradation, Illegal hunting and lack of awareness. It is suggested to preserve avian diversity by the involvement of government agencies, private groups (WWF, IUCN, BirdLife International) and the general public.



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