A Review on the Synergistic Approaches for Heavy Metals Bioremediation: Harnessing the Power of Plant-Microbe Interactions

  • Iqra Arshad Department of Life Sciences, School of Science, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Hifza Iqbal Department of Life Sciences, School of Science, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Syeda Saira Iqbal 2. Sustainable Development Study Center, Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Afzaal 2. Sustainable Development Study Center, Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Yasir Rehman Department of Life Sciences, School of Science, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
Keywords: Heavy metals, Phytoremediation, Bioremediation, Plant-Microbe Interaction


Heavy metals contamination is a serious threat to all life forms. Long term exposure of heavy metals can lead to different life-threatening medical conditions including cancers of different body parts. Phytoremediation and bioremediation offer a potential eco-friendly solution to such problems. Different microbes can interact with heavy metals in a variety of ways such as biotransformation, oxidation/reduction, and biosorption. Phytoremediation of the heavy metals using plants mostly involves rhizofilteration, phytoextraction, phytovolatization, and Phytostabilization. A synergistic approach using both plants and microbes has proven much more efficient as compared to the individual applications of microbes or plants. This article aims to highlight the synergistic methods used in bioremediation, emphasizing the potent collaboration between bacteria and plants for environmental cleaning, along with the discussion of the importance of site-specific variables and potential constraints. While identifying the necessity for all-encompassing solutions, this review places emphasis on the combination of methodologies as a multifarious rehabilitation approach. This discussion offers insightful suggestions for scholars, scientists and decision-makers about the sustainable recovery of heavy metal-contaminated environments using a comprehensive strategy.


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