Effect of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Non-repellent Toxicants Fipronil and Imidacloprid Against Termites: A Review
Non-repellent termiticide such as imidacloprid and fipronil are important to control the subterranean termites. These termiticides effect on the walking and tunneling of subterranean termites in the colony. However, health and environmental concerns related to the use of these termiticide arises question and forced scientific community to focus on alternative, more environmental friendly approaches. Use of microorganisms especially fungi for the control of subterranean termites has gain much attraction in the 40 years as many experimental studies have demonstrated promising output. This method was based on classical biological control with the use of entomopathogenic fungi which can replicate itself in the termite colony and can be transmitted from one individual termite to another, hence creating an epizootic and kill the whole colony. However, lack of positive output in field trial arises concerns about the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi as a potential approach for the control of subterranean termites. Thus, research on the defense system of subterranean termites against the fungal infection started to gain attention in the past decade, however, interaction between termites and fungi is still poorly understood. This review focuses on the use of non-repellent termiticide to control the subterranean termites, problems arises because of these termiticides, alternative methods for subterranean termite control, biological control of fungi using entomopathogenic fungi and defense mechanism of termites triggered in response to fungal interaction.