Halophiles and their Important Enzymes Used for Biotechnology Application
Halophilic bacteria can grow in hypersaline environments like salt mines, solar salterns, hydrothermal, marshy lagoons and hypersaline. They have ability to adapt salt stress conditions by accumulating different water soluble organic molecules such as ectoine, glutamate, glycine betaine and proline. Mostly Haloarchaea can flourish in hypersaline environments by accumulating potassium chloride ions to maintain their internal environments. Bacterial proteins confer osmoregulation, toxic heavy metal resistance and enzymes that expand the nutritional ability of the cell. Metaproteomics (environmental proteomics study deals with all the proteins estimated directly from environmental samples (soil, water, plant or animal tissues). The field of environmental biotechnology has been widely extended by the recent advances in metagenomics levels. It also extended the post genomic area of research.