Fecal Matter as a Bio-indicator of Heavy Metal Toxification in Punjab Urial
Heavy metals are a major class of pollutants that are responsible for high level of toxicity in living beings. These metals have the tendency to bio-accumulate in the living tissues; their levels can be determined in the various organs of the body. Most of the old methods used for the indication of heavy metal contamination in the environment usually involve the killing of animals, whereas current study is used to determine the heavy metal contamination in fecal matter, feed, water and soil without causing any harm to the lives of animals. Observed level of heavy metal like cadmium (0.0073 ppm to 0.020 ppm), lead (0.029 ppm to 0.036 ppm), zinc (4.88 ppm to 5.326 ppm) and copper (0.118 ppm to 0.135 ppm) showed that their amounts are significantly high in fecal sample of Punjab Urial as compared to other samples collected both from Lahore zoo as well as Bahawalpur zoo.